
ABSTRACTS OF ARTICLES OF THE JOURNAL "INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES".
No. 8. Vol. 24. 2018
DOI: 10.17587/it.24.507515
V. Ya. Tsvetkov, D. Sc., Professor, Deputy Head, Center Fundamental and Advanced Research, Research and Design Institute of Design Information, Automation and Communication on Railway Transport, SC NIIAS, Moscow, 109029, Russia, email: cvj2@mail.ru
The Algorithms as a Means of Knowledge
The article explores algorithms as a means of cognition. It is shown that the algorithm is not only a means of calculation, but a means of storing knowledge. Algorithm is also a means of transferring knowledge. The article claims that the algorithm is a means of transforming knowledge. The connection between the algorithm and the model of transformation of implicit knowledge is shown. The article claims that many complex algorithms can be considered as complex systems. This makes it possible to apply system analysis to the analysis of algorithms.
The paper describes two classes of problems and two classes of algorithms based on the receipt of a solution. Algorithms of the first kind and algorithms of the second kind. Algorithms of the first kind allow one to obtain a direct solution of the problem in one step. Algorithms of the second kind solve the problem stage after stage. The article shows the difference between linear and nonlinear algorithms. The article introduces a formal description of algorithms based on system analysis. The article analyzes six typical algorithms of the first kind. An evolutionary relationship between algorithms of the first kind is shown. The article notes the similarity and difference between these algorithms. The article gives a criterion for assigning an algorithm to the first or second kind. The article contains structural diagrams of typical algorithms of the first kind. For each structural scheme, a formal description of the algorithm is given. The difference between the iterative algorithm and the incremental algorithm is shown. The article analyzes the reasons for the emergence of an algorithm of the second kind. It is shown that the main criterion for the appearance of algorithms of the second kind are cognitive signs of foreseeability and perceptibility. The article analyzes algorithms of the second kind and determines the methods of their construction. The methods of solution for the occurrence of problems of the second kind are described. The possibility of using multiagent systems for solving problems of the second kind.
Keywords: calculation, cognition, algorithm, linear algorithm, direct algorithm, algorithm of the first kind, algorithm of the second kind, perceivability of the problem
P. 507–515
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